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11 Sep

Types of climate in Chile

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Due to the long extension of Chile, the different regions of the country have diverse types of climates, which I'm going to detail below, and the types of tourism that you can mainly perform in each one: 1. Desert climate: This area is occupied mostly by the Atacama desert, the driest place on earth. In all the regions covered by this type of climate, it hardly ever rains, and as this zone is characterized by its clear skies almost permanently, it is possible to develop astronomic tourism. The desert climate can be separated in 3 sub-types: 1.1 Coastal desert climate: This climate is present on the coast that goes from the border with Peru to La Serena, and due to influence of the Pacific anticyclone it is very arid. There are temperatures around 18°C, with not a great thermal variation during the day and the year. The humidity reaches 75%, so there are lots of cactus and herbaceous flora. In this climate, rainfall is scarce, but these locations receive a marine fog known as Camanchaca. 1.2 Normal desert climate: This climate is present in the central part of the territory between Arica and Vallenar. During the year, the thermal variation is no more than 7°C, but during the day, the variation can reach 35°C. In this zone, it rains every five or six years, so there is vegetation in very specific places such as oasis and pre-Andean valleys. 1.3 Desert and steppe altitude climate: This climate is present in the Andean sector of the North. In this zone, the temperatures descend with the height, and the average temperature is less than 10°C. In this climate the rains are summer, so there is vegetation which changes according to the height. From the 3000 meters are cactus an Andean tolar, and from the 4000 meters appears the llareta, bofedal and queñoa. 2. Steppe climate: This type of climate is characterized by a strong daily thermal oscillation, low cloudiness, irregular rains and high sunshine, so this places are ideal for doing beach tourism. There are two variants within it: 2.1 Coastal steppe climate: This occurs on the coast between La Serena and Zapallar. The average temperature is about 15°C with a low variation. There is great cloudiness that causes rainfall in the Coastal mountain range. In some sectors there are intense rainstorms of cyclonal origin. The vegetation present in this zone is cactaceae, and there are other species like the doca, the chagual and the guayacán. 2.2 Interior steppe climate: This climate is found in the valleys between Vallenar and the Aconcagua river. The temperatures are similar to those of the coastal sector with an average temperature of approximately 16ºC. The rains occur in the winter, and they are irregular and increase to the south. The average annual rainfall is less than 150 mm. In this zone, there is vegetation in low density. Farther south, as rainfall increases, there is more vegetation with low shrubs, bushes and trees such as algarrobo, dengue, caper and litre. 3. Mediterranean climate: This type of climate is between the rivers Aconcagua and Toltén, where the average annual temperatures are around 16°C. The rains increase to the south and the same with the highest reliefs. In the places with this type of climate there are more dense forests where there are different species of trees like the lingue, the oak and the laurel. This type of climate is auspicious for doing oenological tourism. There are three types of Mediterranean climate: 3.1 Mediterranean climate with prolonged dry season It goes from the Aconcagua basin to the Maule. This type of climate is present in cities such as Santiago, Rancagua and Talca. The average temperature of this zone is between 14°C and 15°C, and the temperature variates in approximately 12 ° C. 3.2 Mediterranean climate with dry and rainy season of equal duration This climate is between the river Maule and the river Laja. Temperatures are slightly lower than in the previous climate. The rains are between April and November and exceed 1,000mm. 3.3 Mediterranean climate of brief dry season This climate is present between the basins of the river Laja and Toltén river. It is a transition between the Mediterranean and the rainy climate. The average annual temperatures are around 12ºC. The dry period is four months and the average rainfall is 1,300 mm. 4. Rainy mild climate This climate is present between the river Toltén and Puerto Montt. The temperatures are getting lower, and the thermal amplitude depends on the proximity to the sea and the relief. In this zone, there are precipitations almost all the year, but it rains the most during winter. The average annual rainfall is between 1,500 mm and 2,000 mm. Due to the humidity and the moderate temperatures, there are evergreen species and forests. Also, in the coastal zone, there is the Selva Valdiviana, a sector where are species such as oaks, laurels, raulíes, larches and araucarias. This zone is ideal for doing ecotourism, because there are a lot of National parks and natural beauties. 5. Rainy sea weather This climate goes from Puerto Montt to Hanover Island, and in this zone it rains a lot during all the year, more than 2,000 mm annual. Temperatures get lower to the south, and the average is about 9ºC in Puerto Aisén. In this zone, there are species like the ulmo, laurel larches, coigües and more. In the southernmost part of the rainy sea weather climate, the cold and the wind are extreme, and it rains the most to the east. Due to the natural characteristics of this zone, you can do adventure tourism. 6. Tundra weather The tundra climate is present on the southernmost islands. where the average annual temperature is approximately 7ºC. There is rainfall during all the year, with ranges between 3,000 mm and 5,000 mm annual. Soils do not have much drainage so the vegetation is composed of lichens and mosses. This type of climate offers beautiful landscapes, so it is good for photography tourism. 7. Cold steppe weather There are two sectors where this type of climate is present: the first one is between Coyhaique and Tortel, and the other is in the islands and territory bordering the Strait of Magellan. The temperatures are low, with an average of 6ºC and with great variation between the different seasons of the year. Rainfall decreases in the winter, because it snows when there are lower temperatures. In Coyhaique the average rainfall is 1,133 mm and in Punta Arenas 437 mm. The vegetation is composed mainly of grasses. 8. High ice climate This climate is present in the high peaks of the Andes mountain range, where the weather is cold and the winds are strong. These high peaks are permanently covered with ice and snow. This zone is perfect for doing mountaineering. 9. Polar climate This climate is in Chilean territory in Antarctica, where during all the year the temperatures are below 0°C. Precipitation reaches approximately 1,000 mm annual. There is vegetation mostly on the coastal zone, because during the summer months it does not have snow. In it there is a vegetation with seaweed, mosses and lichens. 10. Tropical rainy weather This climate is present on Easter Island, where the average temperature is 20°C and the thermal amplitude is 6°C. Rainfall occurs during all the year and it has an average of 1,000 mm per year. It has a vegetation of steppe, product of the volcanic soil of the island. In this place, there a totally different culture, so it’s perfect for doing ethnotourism. I hope you find this interesting and learn something new!

Last modified on Friday, 15 September 2017 19:10
Maria Victoria

Maria Victoria

Hi! My name is Mari, I'm a 19 years old make up artist and I'm from Chile. I love music, dancing, singing and making art in every possible way!. My dream is to travel all around the world, to know countries, cultures, monuments and all the things that come with us being different. 

I like psichodelic, alternative and classic rock. 

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